Bacterial ghosts: Non-living candidate vaccines

R. Klein, M.P. Szostak, A. Hensel, F.O. Eko, T. Auer, H. Mader, A. Haslberger, S. Bunka, G. Wanner, W. Lubitz

Publikation: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftArtikelBegutachtung

Abstract

Expression of cloned PhiX174 gene E in bacteria results in lysis of bacteria. It is unique among phage lysis systems as it introduces a transmembrane tunnel structure through the cell envelope complex of Gram-negative bacteria. The resulting bacterial ghosts have intact envelope structures devoid of cytoplasmic contents. E-mediated lysis has been achieved in a variety of Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Vibrio cholerae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Such ghosts, derived from human or animal pathogens, have been proposed as non-living candidate vaccines and represent an alternative to heat or chemically inactivated bacteria. In 'recombinant ghosts', foreign proteins (e.g., viral proteins) are inserted into the inner membrane via specific N-, or C-, or Nand C-terminal anchor sequences prior to lysis. Relevant advantages of (recombinant) bacterial ghosts as immunogens include: (i) inactivation procedures that denature relevant immunogenic determinants are not employed in the production of ghosts used as vaccines or as carriers of relevant antigens; (ii) the recombinant proteins are inserted into a highly immune stimulatory environment; (iii) there is no size limitation of the foreign protein moieties: multiple antigenic determinants can be presented simultaneously; (iv) bacterial ghosts can be produced inexpensively in large quantities; (v) (recombinant) ghosts are stable for long periods of time and do not require the cold chain storage system. Intraperitoneal, subcutaneous or intramuscular applications of recombinant ghosts in experimental animals induced specific humoral and cellular immune responses against bacterial and viral components. Initial aerosol vaccinations of swine with ghosts from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae showed that protective immunity can be established by this route of application and that the well-preserved surface structures of ghosts obtained by E-mediated lysis are able to target the mucosal immune system. Bacterial (recombinant) ghosts, derived from human or animal pathogens, are proposed as nonliving candidate vaccines and represent an alternative to heat or chemically inactivated bacteria. In bacterial ghosts, foreign proteins are inserted into the inner membrane via specific N-, C- or N- and C-terminal anchor sequences prior to lysis. Intraperitoneal, subcutaneous or intramuscular applications of bacterial ghosts in experimental animals induced specific humoral and cellular immune responses against bacterial and viral components.
OriginalspracheEnglisch
Seiten (von - bis)161-170
Seitenumfang10
FachzeitschriftJournal of Biotechnology
Jahrgang44
Ausgabenummer1-3
DOIs
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - 20 Feb. 2002

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