Shedding light on the molecular and regulatory mechanisms of TLR4 signaling in endothelial cells under physiological and inflamed conditions

Publikation: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftÜbersichtsartikelBegutachtung

Abstract

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are part of the innate immune system. They are capable of recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) of microbes, and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) of damaged tissues. Activation of TLR4 initiates downstream signaling pathways that trigger the secretion of cytokines, type I interferons, and other pro-inflammatory mediators that are necessary for an immediate immune response. However, the systemic release of pro-inflammatory proteins is a powerful driver of acute and chronic inflammatory responses. Over the past decades, immense progress has been made in clarifying the molecular and regulatory mechanisms of TLR4 signaling in inflammation. However, the most common strategies used to study TLR4 signaling rely on genetic manipulation of the TLR4 or the treatment with agonists such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, which are often associated with the generation of irreversible phenotypes in the target cells or unintended cytotoxicity and signaling crosstalk due to off-target or pleiotropic effects. Here, optogenetics offers an alternative strategy to control and monitor cellular signaling in an unprecedented spatiotemporally precise, dose-dependent, and non-invasive manner. This review provides an overview of the structure, function and signaling pathways of the TLR4 and its fundamental role in endothelial cells under physiological and inflammatory conditions, as well as the advances in TLR4 modulation strategies.

OriginalspracheEnglisch
Aufsatznummer1264889
Seiten (von - bis)1264889
FachzeitschriftFrontiers in Immunology
Jahrgang14
DOIs
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - 23 Nov. 2023

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